How were the sailors navigating about three thousand or four thousand years ago? The sea is such a vast patch without limits, that she is ready to swallow the eternal and the lost. Ancient mariners first navigated in still waters with anything that floated even made out of wood or leather. They first navigated with oars, then sails. With the advent of sail, the sailors used the wind as primary force rather than that of their own, their slaves’ or their animals’. This invention has been used for centuries and centuries and formed the easiest and the cheapest way of navigation. It carried people, cultures, cargos and love to far distances. And the story of the old mariners started in Egypt and in Mesopotamia .
Uluburun…An awakening history
The 360° Research Group draws the attention of Turkish and foreign public opinion to the history of Anatolia and the Turkish maritime by researches of scientists and scientific institutions.
The discovery of the century, Uluburun Wreck, has come to surface: Uluburun II
A trade ship connecting the richest and the most advanced civilizations of the period located on the Mediterranean coasts had sunk with the secrets of the Bronze Age 3.300 years ago in Uluburun.
It was carrying the wealth of at least seven different cultures such as Mycenae , Kenan , Cyprus , Egypt , Kassit, Assyria and Nubia . The cargo of the ship was priceless.
The 20.000 pieces varying from the royal seal of the Queen Nephertiti, to jewelers and gigantic war tools was lost for 3.300 years when the ship had sunk.
The ship and its secrets awakened in 1982. George Brass and his team, who had been excavating ancient shipwrecks on the coasts of Anatolia , reflected a light on the mystery of the Bronze Age by the shipwreck they discovered in Uluburun.
The rare findings of Uluburun have excited the archaeology and science world for 20 years. The amazing information about the ship was not limited to its load.
The shipwreck gives clues of an active trade life in the Mediterranean area 3.300 years ago by its load belonging to various and strategically important cultures. The ships of the Bronze Age sailed by a circular course. This course was around 1.700 miles long. The course started from the shores of Syria-Palestine stretching to Cyprus and reaching to Egypt and the Aegean .
The 360° Research Group will travel to the ancient Mediterranean seaports in the light of the ancient astronomy, the science of navigation and the course information gathered. The replica of the ship that sunk 3.300 years ago and whose only 3% is known, is being built using the same methods applied by shipwrights in the Bronze Age by the members of the 360° Research Group.
ULUBURUN II is built by the technique known as ‘shell-first method’, which involved the building up of the planks first, then frames without nails.
The exact replicas of the sails of ULUBURUN II are being weaved from canvas linen in the wooden looms in Denizli. The replicas of ropes are being manufactured by traditional ways in Tire.
A forty years old Tirhandil which has been used in the Mediterranean for ages, is to accompany Uluburun II for technical support during the voyage.
At the end of the voyage ULUBURUN II is to dock Bodrum Underwater Archaelogical Museum , where the pieces of the wreck are being exhibited.
Trailing of Uluburun
Uluburun is the oldest known shipwreck as well as the oldest known merchant shipwreck.
It is the first boat built for long hull voyages that is known for its rotation.
The discovery of the wreck of ULUBURUN II is considered as one of the most significant discoveries of the 20 th c.
The research of scientific data relating to excavation that started in 1984 and for which more than 22.400 divings held, still goes on.
The course of the ship (the Aegean, East Mediterranean and Italy ) and the rare findings of the wreck inform us about 7 different civilizations. ( Mycenae , Nubians, Kenans, Cypriots, Egyptians, Kassits and Assyrians).
The ship symbolizes the Bronze Age with its load consisting mainly of copper and tin.
The load of the ship is revolutionary with its rare findings having a wide variety from amber to gold, Mycenaean vessels to ivory, Nephritis’s seal to Cypriot earthenware pots
Kaş- Anamur- Girne (Cyprus)- Mersin – Rash El Basset (Syria)- Lazkey (Syria)-Tripoli (Lebanon)-Beirut (Lebanon)- Haifa (Israel) -Tel Aviv (Israel) – Echelon (Israel)-Port Said (Egypt)-Alexandria – (Egypt)- Irapetra (Crete)- Iraklion (Crete)- Rhodes – Bodrum
Meeting the Ceramics of the Bronze Age The ceramic objects
Similar to the originals saved from the wreck are being manufactured/created to be presented at the ports Uluburun II anchors.
To tell the story of/ Narrating Uluburun II…
A broadcast will be created comprising the logbook/ notes of the journey and the researches done.
Uluburun Documentary Film
The journey to ancient seaports and our experiences by Uluburun II will be a subject matter of a documentary film.
The Scientific Researches To Be Realized in Uluburun Project
Similiar projects and Uluburun Project
The replicas of the other ship wrecks have been re-constructed and sailed out. The project of 360 Research Group for re-constructing the wreck of Uluburun Ship II proves that similiar projects can be carried out in Turkey . The first of its kind, Uluburun Wreck Project is important in terms of both experimental archaelogy and of the contribution to the promotion of Turkey .
Supportive Persons and Institutions:
• Bodrum Underwater Archaeology Museum
• Associate Professor Cemal Pulak ( Texas A&M University )
• INA (Institute of Nautical Archaeology)
• National Geographic Society
• Ege University , Faculty of Science Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences
• Istanbul University Faculty of Aquatic Sciences
• SAD (Underwater Research Society)
• AFAG (Mediterranean Seals Research Group)
• Dokuz Eylul University, School of Maritime Business and Management, Prof. Dr. A. Güldem Cerit
• Haifa University